The landrace called ‘Tolna’ originates from Tolna (Hungary) and it was collected by the Centre for Plant Diversity in 1963.
Tolna is an indeterminate landrace, with orange-red coloured, flattened, striated (approx. 150-180 g) fruits. It flowers in June and it ripens from end July-early August, with a peak in late August. Tolna has double flowers, resulting in poor fruit setting. The fruits are tasty and rich in juice, making them suitable for processing and fresh consumption as well. The young seedlings develop very slowly, but after reaching a certain maturity, the plant starts to develop fast, with a maximum height of 140-150 cm. The homogeneity of a population is acceptable, its vigorous growth demands a lot of maintenance work from the farmer. The plants need water supply to avoid cracking of the fruits. The transportability of the fruits is poor, but healthy, undamaged fruits can be stored for a long time. Under ideal weather conditions the flavour, sugar and acid countenance of this cultivar is exceptionally good. (Cseperkálóné et al. 2017).
Cultivation System: suitable for low-input conditions, organic cultivation.
Tolna was traditionally cultivated in home gardens of the village Tolna (South-west of Hungary). The National Gene Bank (Centre for Plant Diversity www.nodik.hu) preserved this landrace, which was collected by them in 1963. The Hungarian Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKi) requested accessions from the Centre for Plant Diversity in order to carry out on-farm participatory experiments between 2012-2016, comparing tomato landraces (including Tolna) in five growing seasons in Hungary. In 2018 citizens could ‘adopt’ a seedling choosing from 6 varieties.
Nowadays it is cultivated by several farmers and hobby gardeners spread out in the country.
The farmers, gardeners used to save seeds, which is not a difficult process as this landrace produces a huge amount of seeds and the crop is predominantly autogamous. Seeds are saved from healthy and good performing plants.
Propagation system: Seed, self-pollinationMultiplication procedures and consequences on landrace diversity:
Tomato is a predominantly self-pollinating plant, but crosses do occur where presence of insects is high. Each farmer multiplies his own seed under slightly different agronomic conditions. The average number of plants multiplied by each farmer each year ranges from a few to several dozens. At harvesting, each farmer selects seeds that will be used for the next season.Management plan existence:
No support is provided by local authorities.
If there is any market for this landrace, at the moment is very small, it’s mainly grown for own consumption, by hobby gardeners. The landrace is best used for fresh consumption, the storability and processing experiments were giving poor results, therefore there are evidences that this landrace is mainly suitable for home production and for local farmers’ markets.Others (e.g. commercial/geographical brands or special traits):
‘Tolna’ is registered as conservation variety in the European Common Catalogue of Conservation Varieties following the Commission Directive 2008/62/CE of 20 June 2008.
The Hungarian Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKi) launched a participatory research on the usability of Hungarian tomato landraces on organic farms in 2012. The aim of the analysis was to reintroduce landraces that were the most suitable for organic production into Hungarian gardens so that their special and diverse colour, shapes and flavours could be rediscovered. In order to make seeds and seedlings available for the wider public, after a precise description ÖMKi registered the most popular and successful 6 landraces in 2019 and supports the seedling production in the frame of the campaign ‘From research to plate’.
Accessions of ‘Tolna’ are kept under long terms storage conditions in the germplasm bank of the Centre for Plant Diversity, Hungary.
The landrace is maintained since 2012 on-farm beyond and as part of the ÖMKi landrace tomato project.
Case study prepared by The Hungarian Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKi), Hungary.
- Cseperkálóné Mirek B., Dr. Drexler D., Papp O. (2017) Paradicsom tájfajták vizsgálata ökológiai gazdálkodásban.