Crop: Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum (Einkorn wheat )

“Bözödi” (Triticum monococcum L.) is characterised by long stems, which were used for straw-hat making in the region of origin. The landrace has a yield of about 1 ton/ha. Within the cultivation area the landrace is generally sown from late September to early October and harvested 2 weeks after bread wheat. Sowing seed rate is about 15 kg/ha (6 plants/m2). The landrace has a good tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors and resistance to diseases and pests. Einkorn thrives in poor soil, in order to prevent lodging, avoid the use artificial fertilizers. The grains are processed into flour, bread, pastry and pasta products are prepared.

Cultivation System: organic, low-input conditions.

Geographical Information

Country: Romania

“Bözödi einkorn” is traditionally cultivated in “Bözödújfalu” valley (Central Romania) on several hectares. The landrace was introduced to Hungary 17 years ago and it’s cultivated in Tata, Héreg, Ócsa and Badacsony with a total area of about 30-50 hectares.

Farmer(s) description:

Farmers cultivating “Bözöd” landrace on separated several hectare fields, are marketing the dehulled seeds or the products (flour, pasta). The farmers and researchers working on Bözöd landrace established the “Bözöd Einkorn Society”, but at the moment there is no activity within the Society.

Propagation system: Seed, self-pollination

Multiplication procedures and consequences on landrace diversity:

Einkorn in an autogamous crop. The seeds for the next season are saved individually by each farmer, exchange do occur. The plot for next year seeds are hand harvested on the best spot of the field, with the lowest weed contamination and healthy, well developed ears.

Management plan existence:

The landrace management relies completely on farming activities in the area. Currently, no technical or scientific support is given by local authorities.

Added Values

Market - existing and novel:

There is a growing market for ancient cereals, and Bözöd einkorn as a traditional variety is among the most successful ones.

Others (e.g. commercial/geographical brands or special traits):

There are some efforts done to register Bözöd einkorn as a landrace, which was not successful until now.

The pasta and bread business established on the landrace and the growing demand for these products are assuring that the variety is conserved on a long term.


Case study prepared by The Hungarian Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKi), Hungary.